Fitness Nutrition



Nutrition is the provision, to cells of the materials necessary (in the form of food) to support life. Many common health problems can be prevented or alleviated with a healthy diet.
The diet of an organism is what it eats, which is largely determined by the perceived palatability of foods.
A poor diet can have an injurious impact on health, causing deficiency diseases such as scurvy and kwashiorkor; (you are not likely to suffer from these !), but also health-threatening conditions like obesity (which may well creep up on you as you grow older) and metabolic syndrome; and such common chronic systemic diseases as cardiovascular disease,diabetes, and osteoporosis.
There are six major classes of nutrients: carbohydrates, fats, minerals, protein, vitamins, and water.
These nutrient classes can be categorized as either macronutrients (needed in relatively large amounts) or micro-nutrients (needed in smaller quantities).
The macro-nutrients include carbohydrates (including fiber), fats, protein, and water.
The micro-nutrients are minerals and vitamins.

Now this is the boring - but it helps if you understand at least some of it.
(If you want to know what you should be eating for your perfect body scroll down to 'What You Should Be Eating)

The macro-nutrients (excluding fiber and water) provide structural material (amino acids from which proteins are built, and lipids from which cell membranes and some signaling molecules are built) and energy.
Some of the structural material can be used to generate energy internally, and in either case it is measured in Joules or kilo-calories (often called "Calories" and written with a capital C to distinguish them from little 'c' calories). Carbohydrates and proteins provide 17 kJ approximately (4 kcal) of energy per gram, while fats provide 37 kJ (9 kcal) per gram., though the net energy from either depends on such factors as absorption and digestive effort, which vary substantially from instance to instance.
Vitamins, minerals, fibre, and water do not provide energy, but are required for other reasons. A third class of dietary material, fibre (i.e., non-digestible material such as cellulose), is also required, for both mechanical and biochemical reasons, although the exact reasons remain unclear.
Molecules of carbohydrates and fats consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. Carbohydrates range from simple monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, galactose) to complex polysaccharides (starch).
Fats are triglycerides, made of assorted fatty acid monomers bound to glycerol backbone. Some fatty acids, but not all, are essential in the diet: they cannot be synthesized in the body. Protein molecules contain nitrogen atoms in addition to carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen.
The fundamental components of protein are nitrogen-containing amino acids, some of which are essential in the sense that humans cannot make them internally.
Some of the amino acids are convertible (with the expenditure of energy) to glucose and can be used for energy production just as ordinary glucose in a process known as gluconeogenesis.
By breaking down existing protein, some glucose can be produced internally; the remaining amino acids are discarded, primarily as urea in urine. This occurs normally only during prolonged starvation.
Other micronutrients include antioxidants and phytochemicals, which are said to influence (or protect) some body systems.
Their necessity is not as well established as in the case of, for instance, vitamins.
Most foods contain a mix of some or all of the nutrient classes, together with other substances, such as toxins of various sorts.
Some nutrients can be stored internally (e.g., the fat soluble vitamins), while others are required more or less continuously.
Poor health can be caused by a lack of required nutrients or, in extreme cases, too much of a required nutrient.
For example, (and just to frighten you) both salt and water (both absolutely required) will cause illness or even death in excessive amounts.


Carbohydrates may be classified as monosaccharides, disaccharides, or polysaccharides depending on the number of monomer (sugar) units they contain.
They constitute a large part of foods such as rice, noodles, bread, and other grain-based products.
Monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides contain one, two, and three or more sugar units, respectively. Polysaccharides are often referred to as complex carbohydrates because they are typically long, multiple branched chains of sugar units.
Traditionally, simple carbohydrates were believed to be absorbed quickly, and therefore raise blood-glucose levels more rapidly than complex carbohydrates.
This, however, is not accurate.
Some simple carbohydrates (e.g. fructose) follow different metabolic pathways (e.g. fructolysis) which result in only a partial catabolism to glucose, while many complex carbohydrates may be digested at essentially the same rate as simple.


Dietary fiber is a carbohydrate (or a polysaccharide) that is incompletely absorbed in humans and in some animals.
Like all carbohydrates, when it is metabolized it can produce four Calories (kilocalories) of energy per gram, however, in most circumstances it accounts for less than that because of its limited absorption and digestibility.
Dietary fibre consists mainly of cellulose, a large carbohydrate polymer that is indigestible because humans do not have the required enzymes to disassemble it.
There are two subcategories: soluble and insoluble fiber.
Whole grains, fruits (especially plums, prunes, and figs), and vegetables are good sources of dietary fibre.
There are many health benefits of a high-fiber diet.
Dietary fibre helps reduce the chance of gastrointestinal problems such as constipation and diarrhoea by increasing the weight and size of stool and softening it.
Insoluble fibre, found in whole wheat flour, nuts and vegetables, especially stimulates peristalsis – the rhythmic muscular contractions of the intestines which move digesta along the digestive tract.
Soluble fibre, found in oats, peas, beans, and many fruits, dissolves in water in the intestinal tract to produce a gel which slows the movement of food through the intestines.
This may help lower blood glucose levels because it can slow the absorption of sugar. Additionally, fibre, perhaps especially that from whole grains, is thought to possibly help lessen insulin spikes, and therefore reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes.
The link between increased fibre consumption and a decreased risk of colorectal cancer is still uncertain.


A molecule of dietary fat typically consists of several fatty acids (containing long chains of carbon and hydrogen atoms), bonded to a glycerol.

They are typically found as triglycerides (three fatty acids attached to one glycerol backbone). Fats may be classified as saturated or unsaturated depending on the detailed structure of the fatty acids involved. Saturated fats have all of the carbon atoms in their fatty acid chains bonded to hydrogen atoms, whereas unsaturated fats have some of these carbon atoms double-bonded, so their molecules have relatively fewer hydrogen atoms than a saturated fatty acid of the same length.

Unsaturated fats may be further classified as mono-unsaturated (one double-bond) or polyunsaturated (many double-bonds), furthermore, depending on the location of the double-bond in the fatty acid chain, unsaturated fatty acids are classified as omega-3 or omega-6 fatty acids.
Trans fats are a type of unsaturated fat with trans-isomer bonds; these are rare in nature and in foods from natural sources; they are typically created in an industrial process called (partial) hydrogenation.
There are nine kilo-calories in each gram of fat (that's a lot).
Fatty acids such as conjugated linoleic acid, catalpic acid, eleostearic acid and punicic acid, in addition to providing energy, represent potent immune modulatory molecules (that's good).
Saturated fats (typically from animal sources) have been a staple in many world cultures for millennia.
Unsaturated fats (e. g., vegetable oil) are considered healthier, while trans fats are to be avoided.
Saturated and some trans fats are typically solid at room temperature (such as butter or lard), while unsaturated fats are typically liquids (such as olive oil or flaxseed oil).
Trans fats are very rare in nature, and have been shown to be highly detrimental to human health, but have properties useful in the food processing industry, such as rancidity resistance.

Essential Fatty Acids

Most fatty acids are non-essential, meaning the body can produce them as needed, generally from other fatty acids and always by expending energy to do so, however, in humans, at least two fatty acids are essential and must be included in the diet.
An appropriate balance of essential fatty acids—omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids—seems also important for health, although definitive experimental demonstration has been elusive. Both of these "omega" long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are substrates for a class of eicosanoids known as prostaglandins, which have roles throughout the human body.
They are hormones, in some respects.
The omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), which can be made in the human body from the omega-3 essential fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), or taken in through marine food sources, serves as a building block for series 3 prostaglandins (e.g. weakly inflammatory PGE3). The omega-6 dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA) serves as a building block for series 1 prostaglandins (e.g. anti-inflammatory PGE1), whereas arachidonic acid (AA) serves as a building block for series 2 prostaglandins (e.g. pro-inflammatory PGE 2).
Both DGLA and AA can be made from the omega-6 linoleic acid (LA) in the human body, or can be taken in directly through food.
An appropriately balanced intake of omega-3 and omega-6 partly determines the relative production of different prostaglandins, which is one reason why a balance between omega-3 and omega-6 is believed important for cardiovascular health.
In industrialized societies, people typically consume large amounts of processed vegetable oils, which have reduced amounts of the essential fatty acids along with too much of omega-6 fatty acids relative to omega-3 fatty acids.
The conversion rate of omega-6 DGLA to AA largely determines the production of the prostaglandins PGE1 and PGE2.
Omega-3 EPA prevents AA from being released from membranes, thereby skewing prostaglandin balance away from pro-inflammatory PGE2 (made from AA) toward anti-inflammatory PGE1 (made from DGLA), moreover, the conversion (desaturation) of DGLA to AA is controlled by the enzyme delta-5-desaturase, which in turn is controlled by hormones such as insulin (up-regulation) and glucagon (down-regulation).
The amount and type of carbohydrates consumed, along with some types of amino acid, can influence processes involving insulin, glucagon, and other hormones; therefore the ratio of omega-3 versus omega-6 has wide effects on general health, and specific effects on immune function and inflammation, and mitosis (i.e. cell division).


Proteins are the basis of many animal body structures (e.g. muscles, skin, and hair).
They also form the enzymes that control chemical reactions throughout the body.
Each molecule is composed of amino acids, which are characterized by inclusion of nitrogen and sometimes sulphur (these components are responsible for the distinctive smell of burning protein, such as the keratin in hair).
The body requires amino acids to produce new proteins (protein retention) and to replace damaged proteins (maintenance).
As there is no protein or amino acid storage provision, amino acids must be present in the diet.
Excess amino acids are discarded, typically in the urine.
For all animals, some amino acids are essential (an animal cannot produce them internally) and some are non-essential (the animal can produce them from other nitrogen-containing compounds).
About twenty amino acids are found in the human body, and about ten of these are essential and, therefore, must be included in the diet.
A diet that contains adequate amounts of amino acids (especially those that are essential) is particularly important in some situations: during early development and maturation, pregnancy, lactation, or injury (a burn, for instance) - and when undertaking heavy exercise.
A complete protein source contains all the essential amino acids; an incomplete protein source lacks one or more of the essential amino acids.
It is possible to combine two incomplete protein sources (e.g. rice and beans) to make a complete protein source, and characteristic combinations are the basis of distinct cultural cooking traditions.
Sources of dietary protein include meats, tofu and other soy-products, eggs, legumes, and dairy products such as milk and cheese.
Excess amino acids from protein can be converted into glucose and used for fuel through a process called gluconeogenesis.
The amino acids remaining after such conversion are discarded.

Dietary minerals are the chemical elements required by living organisms, other than the four elements carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen that are present in nearly all organic molecules.
The term "mineral" is archaic, since the intent is to describe simply the less common elements in the diet.
Some are heavier than the four just mentioned, including several metals, which often occur as ions in the body.
Some dietitians recommend that these be supplied from foods in which they occur naturally, or at least as complex compounds, or sometimes even from natural inorganic sources (such as calcium carbonate from ground oyster shells).
Some minerals are absorbed much more readily in the ionic forms found in such sources.
On the other hand, minerals are often artificially added to the diet as supplements; the most famous is likely iodine in iodized salt which prevents goiter.

Macro Minerals

Many elements are essential in relative quantity; they are usually called "bulk minerals".
Some are structural, but many play a role as electrolytes.
Elements with recommended dietary allowance (RDA) greater than 200 mg/day are, in alphabetical order (with informal or folk-medicine perspectives in parentheses):
Calcium, a common electrolyte, but also needed structurally (for muscle and digestive system health, bone strength, some forms neutralize acidity, may help clear toxins, provides signaling ions for nerve and membrane functions)
Chlorine as chloride ions; very common electrolyte; see sodium, below
Magnesium, required for processing ATP and related reactions (builds bone, causes strong peristalsis, increases flexibility, increases alkalinity)
Phosphorus, required component of bones; essential for energy processing.
Potassium, a very common electrolyte (heart and nerve health)
Sodium, a very common electrolyte; not generally found in dietary supplements, despite being needed in large quantities, because the ion is very common in food: typically as sodium chloride, or common salt.
Excessive sodium consumption can deplete calcium and magnesium, leading to high blood pressure and osteoporosis.
Sulfur, for three essential amino acids and therefore many proteins (skin, hair, nails, liver, and pancreas). Sulfur is not consumed alone, but in the form of sulfur-containing amino acids

Trace Minerals

Many elements are required in trace amounts, usually because they play a catalytic role in enzymes.
Some trace mineral elements (RDA < 200 mg/day) are, in alphabetical order:
Cobalt required for biosynthesis of vitamin B12 family of coenzymes. Animals cannot biosynthesize B12, and must obtain this cobalt-containing vitamin in the diet
Copper required component of many redox enzymes, including cytochrome c oxidase
Chromium required for sugar metabolism
Iodine required not only for the biosynthesis of thyroxine, but probably, for other important organs as breast, stomach, salivary glands, thymus etc. (see Extrathyroidal iodine); for this reason iodine is needed in larger quantities than others in this list, and sometimes classified with the macrominerals
Iron required for many enzymes, and for hemoglobin and some other proteins
Manganese (processing of oxygen)
Molybdenum required for xanthine oxidase and related oxidases
Nickel present in urease
Selenium required for peroxidase (antioxidant proteins)
Vanadium (Speculative: there is no established RDA for vanadium. No specific biochemical function has been identified for it in humans, although vanadium is required for some lower organisms.)
Zinc required for several enzymes such as carboxypeptidase, liver alcohol dehydrogenase, and carbonic anhydrase


As with the minerals discussed above, some vitamins are recognized as essential nutrients, necessary in the diet for good health. (Vitamin D is the exception: it can be synthesized in the skin, in the presence of UVB radiation.)
Certain vitamin-like compounds that are recommended in the diet, such as carnitine (See below), are thought useful for survival and health, but these are not "essential" dietary nutrients because the human body has some capacity to produce them from other compounds.
Moreover, thousands of different phytochemicals have recently been discovered in food (particularly in fresh vegetables), which may have desirable properties including antioxidant activity (see below); however, experimental demonstration has been suggestive but inconclusive.
Other essential nutrients that are not classified as vitamins include essential amino acids (see above), choline, essential fatty acids (see above), and the minerals discussed in the preceding section.
Vitamin deficiencies may result in disease conditions, including goitre, scurvy, osteoporosis, impaired immune system, disorders of cell metabolism, certain forms of cancer, symptoms of premature ageing, and poor psychological health (including eating disorders), among many others.
Excess levels of some vitamins are also dangerous to health (notably vitamin A), and for at least one vitamin, B6, toxicity begins at levels not far above the required amount.
Deficient or excess levels of minerals can also have serious health consequences.

Anti Oxidants

As cellular metabolism/energy production requires oxygen, potentially damaging (e.g. mutation causing) compounds known as free radicals can form.
Most of these are oxidizers (i.e. acceptors of electrons) and some react very strongly.
For the continued normal cellular maintenance, growth, and division, these free radicals must be sufficiently neutralized by antioxidant compounds.
Recently, some researchers suggested an interesting theory of evolution of dietary antioxidants.
Some are produced by the human body with adequate precursors (glutathione, Vitamin C), and those the body cannot produce may only be obtained in the diet via direct sources (Vitamin C in humans, Vitamin A, Vitamin K) or produced by the body from other compounds (Beta-carotene converted to Vitamin A by the body, Vitamin D synthesized from cholesterol by sunlight).
Different antioxidants are now known to function in a cooperative network.
For example, Vitamin C can reactivate free radical-containing glutathione or Vitamin E by accepting the free radical itself.
Some antioxidants are more effective than others at neutralizing different free radicals.
Some cannot neutralize certain free radicals. Some cannot be present in certain areas of free radical development (Vitamin A is fat-soluble and protects fat areas, Vitamin C is water soluble and protects those areas).
When interacting with a free radical, some antioxidants produce a different free radical compound that is less dangerous or more dangerous than the previous compound.
Having a variety of antioxidants allows any byproducts to be safely dealt with by more efficient antioxidants in neutralizing a free radical's butterfly effect.

What You Should Be Eating

If you wish to develop your perfect body as effeciently as possible you should obviously be consuming a healthy diet - and some indication of this has been given above.

Now for the practicalities - and this is the point where you may well go to another blog - but before you do - THINK - Do you really want to be slim, healthy and fit ? if so - then read on.

1 NO cigarettes or recreational drugs - theses are all toxins - the word (from Greek: τοξικόν toxikon) means a poisonous substance. You cannot be fit if you poison yourself every day. - And - recreational drugs includes alcohol.

2 Plenty of fibre - for the reasons mentioned previously. That means plenty of fruit, vegetables and whole-meal bread - and liberal amounts of olive oil on salads.

3 A moderate amount of protein (more about protien later), which should be obtained from fresh fish and chicken.

4 Limited amounts of dairy products, including milk, and cheese and NO butter.

5 NO coffee and only sugar free carbonated drinks.

You should take a good quality multivitamin and mineral supplement, a Lactobacillus acidophilus supplement, extra calcium and also melatonin to ensure good quality sleep.

And now for the special supplements that should guarantee your success:

To get the best out of the hours spent in the gym and the pool you will need to take the following amino acids in the form of supplements.

1 Creatine Ethyl Ester

2 L-Arginine

3 L-Glutamine

4 L-Leucine

5 Acetyl L-Carnitine

6 Tribulus Terrestris (only if you are male)


Creatine is a natural component found primarily in the body’s skeletal muscle.
After ingestion, creatine is transported to muscles to increase their energy levels by increasing the availability of ATP.
The increased ATP provides an extra kick during repeated bouts of intense exercise which helps the body build more muscle.
While creatine does help growth in muscle fibers due to the ability to lift heavier and more intensely, it primarily results in muscle volumization.
Muscle volumization is caused by fluid retention.
As muscles become saturated with creatine, they attract and retain water giving the muscles a fuller appearance.
When you first start taking a creatine supplement, you are likely to gain 5-10lbs, and the gains are legitimately fat free and these gains in muscle fibers and muscle strength will be maintained. -There are no known adverse side-effects.

For supplier of this supplements go to


Arginine (abbreviated as Arg or R)[1] is an α-amino acid. The L-form is one of the 20 most common natural amino acids.
L-Arginine is a precursor for the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO)[11]
It reduces healing time of injuries (particularly bone), and quickens repair time of damaged tissue
It also helps decrease blood pressure and increase blood flow to muscles, which results in the delivery of more blood to the muscles along with more oxygen, nutrients and anabolic hormones, as well as bigger muscle pumps.
Arginine is also effective in boosting growth hormone (GH) levels, critical for stimulating muscle growth. Subjects taking arginine increased their bench-press strength by almost 20 pounds more than those taking a placebo.

For supplier of this supplements go to


Glutamine aids muscle growth by increasing levels of the BCAA (branch chain amino acid) leucine in muscle fibers.
It also helps decrease muscle breakdown.
Since the immune system requires glutamine to function, taking supplemental glutamine prevents the immune system from stealing it from muscle fibers.
This not only enhances immune function, but also encourages muscle growth via better maintenance of muscle-glutamine levels.
Taken before workouts, it can help to decrease muscle fatigue by buffering lactic acid.
It also boosts GH levels, making it a great supplement for after workouts and before bed.
Recent research also shows that glutamine can increase the amount of calories and fat burned at rest and during exercise.

For supplier of this supplements go to


Leucine (abbreviated as Leu or L) is a branched-chain α-amino acid with the chemical formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2CH(CH3)2.
Leucine is classified as a hydrophobic amino acid due to its aliphatic isobutyl side chain.
Leucine is utilized in the liver, adipose tissue, and muscle tissue. In adipose and muscle tissue, leucine is used in the formation of sterols, and the combined usage of leucine in these two tissues is seven times greater than its use in the liver.
Leucine is the only dietary amino acid that has the capacity to stimulate muscle protein synthesis.
As a dietary supplement, leucine has been found to slow the degradation of muscle tissue by increasing the synthesis of muscle proteins in aged rats.
While once seen as an important part of the three branch chained amino acids in sports supplements, leucine has since earned more attention on its own as a catalyst for muscle growth and muscular insurance. Supplement companies once marketed the "ideal" 2:1:1 ratio of leucine, iso-leucine and valine; but with furthered evidence that leucine is the most important amino acid for muscle building, it has become much more popular as the primary ingredient in dietary supplements.

For supplier of this supplements go to

The following two supplements, along with arginine, are essential if you wish to achieve the lean, toned look with good 'definition'. You must still control your total calorie intake, however.

Carnitine is a quaternary ammonium compound biosynthesized from the amino acids lysine and methionine as well as vitamin C, B-3, B-6 and iron.
In living cells, it is required for the transport of fatty acids from the cytosol into the mitochondria during the breakdown of lipids (fats) for the generation of metabolic energy.
It is widely available as a nutritional supplement.
New research shows that in addition to fat burning, carnitine can enhance muscle growth.
Studies show that oral carnitine reduces fat mass, increases muscle mass, and reduces fatigue.
Carnitine is essential in the body for transporting fats to the mitochondria, the area in cells where fats are burned for fuel.
Research also shows that carnitine can enhance the amount of testosterone receptors known as androgen receptors, inside muscle cells.
The more of these receptors the more testosterone that can bind to them and stimulate muscle growth.

For supplier of this supplements go to

Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA)

Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are a family of at least 28 isomers of linoleic acid found mainly in the meat and dairy products derived from cud chewing mammals called ruminants.
As the name implies, the double bonds of CLAs are conjugated, with only one single bond between them.
Anticancer properties have been attributed to CLA, and studies on mice and rats show encouraging results in hindering the growth of tumors in mammary (except Her2 breast cancer), skin, and colon tissues
It has been reported that CLA can up-regulate the tumor suppressor gene PTPRG.
The most promising science around CLA concerns its effect on weight management.
Studies, which vary widely in CLA dose and duration, show the most significant effect of CLA on weight management is on body composition, a reduction in total body fat and an increase in lean body mass.
The effect of CLA on fat mass is modest and at the recommended dosage of 3.2g/day produces a statistically significant 90 g fat loss per week (ca. 1 lb in 5 weeks) as shown by a 2007 meta-analysis.
Another meta-analysis found that CLA supplementation produces about 1% increase in lean body mass per week.
With the simultaneous decrease in fat mass coupled with increases in lean body mass, often the net change in weight is small. However, the effects of CLA on body composition is a healthy effect, since the degree of fat mass is related to many causes of mortality and lean body mass burns more calories than fat mass which may help to increase resting metabolic rates.

Muscle development in males is closely correlated to testosterone (male sex hormone) levels, which is why human males, in nature, on average have a greater muscle mass than females.
The ONLY safe supplement for assisting the body's natural production of testosterone is Tribulus Terrestris.

For supplier of this supplements go to

Tribulus Terrestris

Tribulus Terrestris is used for its testosterone boosting properties. Studies have shown over 50% increase in testosterone levels when taking Tribulus Terresteris.
Testosterone helps build muscle and strength, however Tribulus Terrestris is NOT a hormone!
Tribulus Terrestris increases testosterone through increasing luteninizing hormone in your body.
Research and studies have been conducted on Tribulus Terrestris here are the results
A study done with healthy individuals taking 750mg of Tribulus per day showed a 72% LH increase, and a 41% increase in testosterone.

Be warned - the combination of L-Arginine and Tribulus Terrestris WILL make you 'horny'.

For supplier of this supplements go to

These five Amino Acid supplements are essential for the creation of your perfect body. If taken in the correct proportions they will produce a lean, well-toned and well-muscled physique.

DO NOT be tempted to use Whey Protein supplements.
The effects of whey protein supplementation on muscle growth in response to resistance training are debatable.
Research exists that show little to no benefit of whey protein supplementation.
The authors of one study concluded that "young adults who supplement with protein during a structured resistance training program experience minimal beneficial effects in lean tissue mass and strength,".
Another study of elderly men found supplementation with whey protein before and after exercise not to have any significant effect on skeletal muscle hypertrophy compared to placebo.
There is some evidence that Whey Protein builds a certain amount of bulk, but this is associated with sub-cutaneous fat deposits and 'smoothness', and does not contribute to the 'lean, well-toned' look which is the sign of a truly healthy physique.

Your Diet

The word diet (nutrition) normally means the sum of the food consumed by an organism.
Often today, however, the word is taken to mean the deliberate selection of food to control body weight or nutrient intake.
You will not be 'on a diet' in the conventional sense of the word - however it is essential the maintain control of the number of calories you consume.
Food consumption is controlled by the appestat which has been the subject of much research in the last decade.
Breakthroughs included the discovery, in 1994, of leptin, a hormone that appeared to provide negative feedback.
Later studies showed that appetite regulation is an immensely complex process involving the gastrointestinal tract, many hormones, and both the central and autonomic nervous systems.
In relation to the appestat it is important to note that aerobic activity suppresses appetite, since aerobic exercise increases sugar and fatty acid transport in the blood by stimulating tissues to release their energy stores.
In addition all forms of exercise increase the basal metabolic rate, causing the body to burn off more fat than it would if exercise were not undertaken.
The only real control required over food intake is to control the consumption of what are referred to as 'empty calories'.
'Empty calories' are foods which contain excessive amounts of carbohydrates and little or no fibre, protein, vitamins or minerals.
Such 'empty calorie' foods are sugars, alcoholic drinks and saturated fat laden products.
It is interesting to note, however, that contrary to expectations, craving for such 'empty foods' diminishes as a result of frequent and regular exercise, and thus the 'diet' becomes self regulating.


The following is an example of the diet followed by the teenage Olympian Tom Daley.
Please remember that daley is a teenager, with a teenager's high metabolic rate.
In addition he works out (both in the pool and in the gym) for many hours each day.
All this uses up a huge number of calories - so adjust your diet, taking into account your age and the total daily amount of exercise that you perform.

Breakfast: Either beans or scrambled eggs on toast, or a bowl of iron-rich cereal such as Bran Flakes.

Training tip: A 30g serving of Kellogg's Bran Flakes contains 50% of your GDA of iron, which is vital for optimum athletic performance. Lack of iron can cause a decrease in your body's stores of haemoglobin and negatively affect the transport of oxygen to your muscles.

2.30pm Post-training snack: Cereal bar and chocolate milkshake.

Sometimes a piece of fruit.

Training tip Researchers at Kean University, USA, found low-fat chocolate milk facilitates post-exercise recovery as effectively as a dedicated carbohydrate-electrolyte drink.

1pm Jacket potato and some chicken to replenish protein levels during the recovery period.

4.30pm Dinner/pre-training meal. Chicken or lean protein, steamed vegetables (broccoli, green beans) and some complex carbohydrates (sweet potato, brown rice, brown pasta).

9.15pm Post-training snack. Chocolate milkshake followed by some toast and chocolate spread to replenish carbohydrate stores. Occasionally a vegetable soup using sweet potato and plenty of green vegetables.


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Train  Like  Tom  Daley

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